Vitamins: what are, why are they needed and how to take them correctly

Often we feel tired, unwell, especially in the “transition period” when the seasons change. The body lacks vitamins and other beneficial substances and trace elements. What is necessary for good health and proper functioning of the body?

Vitamins and nutrients are necessary components for the proper functioning of the body. Man consists of many tiny bricks cells. These cells have a certain structure, differ depending on the location and purpose.

Together, they form tissues, such as muscle, nervous. Tissues form organs and organ systems. Interacting with each other, with the help of complex biochemical reactions, form a complex structure the human body. And now, just for the correct and long functioning of this complex biological structure, the entry of vitamins and nutrients from the outside is necessary.


Most vitamins are not synthesized by the body itself but must be regularly supplied with food. The exceptions are vitamin D, which is formed in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, and vitamins K and B3, which are synthesized by the bacterial microflora of the human large intestine.

In their natural state, vitamins are present in all foods of organic origin.

To date, 13 substances (or groups of substances) are recognized as vitamins. The recognition of several other substances, such as carnitine and inositol, is being considered by the scientific community.

3 pathological conditions are associated with a violation of the intake of vitamins in the body: a lack of vitamin hypovitaminosis, a lack of vitamin deficiency and an excess of vitamin hypervitaminosis.

Vitamins are also divided into fat-soluble A, D, E, K, and water-soluble C and B vitamins. With an excess, some fat-soluble vitamins accumulate in adipose tissue and liver. And this can lead to hypervitaminosis A and D. Excess water-soluble vitamins are excreted in the urine.


Can we get the necessary vitamins from food? Today no, scientists say. And there are a number of reasons for this.

The human need for vitamins was formed in those distant times, when our ancestors needed a lot of energy to survive, which food could give in 3,500-4,000 calories. Today, a person who is not engaged in heavy physical labor needs no more than 2500 calories, otherwise, he risks obesity. But, limiting ourselves in energy, we lack vitamins.

To satisfy the need for vitamin C, a person should eat 5-6 fresh vegetables and fruits a day, including in the form of salads. We need the number of B vitamins contained in 400 g of lean meat and 1.3 kg of brown bread. Of course, nobody eats so much.

French nutritionists during one of the studies put in the computer the chemical compositions of all the dishes of French cuisine and instructed the car to pick up a diet for 2.5 thousand kcal, the richest in vitamins. Computer calculations showed that in French cuisine there is no menu that would satisfy a person’s need for B vitamins by 100%!

Ideally, only 80% was obtained. But really with the food that we eat, vitamins of group B we can get only 60%.

Human intervention in nature has changed the composition of fruits and vegetables. Studies conducted by Japanese scientists have shown that in modern varieties of apples and oranges, vitamin C is 10–20 times less than in wild ones. As a result of selection, fruits and vegetables became large, frost-resistant, stored longer and better transported, but they, unfortunately, are now poor in vitamins.

So there are two ways for us: to enrich the most common foods, milk, and flour, or take vitamin complexes. Tablets, capsules, soluble powders, syrups are designed for a one-time intake of several vitamins and minerals.

The composition and amount of vitamins and minerals in one dose varies depending on the purpose of the drug: for all family members, for children, for the elderly, for pregnant women Important

Many people believe that vitamins from pharmacy complexes are less easily absorbed. In fact, they are absorbed better than from food. In dragees, vitamins are in the form of ready-made molecules, and the body needs to isolate them from the products, and then integrate them into their protein. This takes time, for which food with some vitamins is excreted from the body. The assimilation of vitamins from foods is at best 90–95%. In reality, it can be 50-60% or even lower.

Many are also afraid that an overdose may occur when taking pharmacy drugs. In fact, with excess in the body, only fat-soluble vitamins accumulate, and this can lead to hypervitaminosis A and D.

Therefore, vitamin-mineral complexes containing these vitamins should be taken only at the dose and course recommended in the instructions. Excess water-soluble vitamins are excreted in the urine, it is not so dangerous, but here the recommended doses should not be significantly exceeded.

Keep in mind

Vitamin A acts most effectively if taken with B vitamins (complex), D, E. Its action is also enhanced by mineral elements such as calcium, phosphorus, and zinc.

Vitamins of group B are very well combined with vitamin C. Their effect on the human body is also enhanced by a combination of magnesium.

Vitamin C is better absorbed if taken with mineral elements such as calcium and magnesium.

Vitamin D is best combined with vitamins A, C, as well as calcium and phosphorus.

On a note

Some drugs interfere with the absorption of vitamins and remove valuable trace elements from the human body. The same can be said of some bad habits. For example:

  • alcohol destroys vitamins A, group B, as well as calcium, zinc, potassium, magnesium, and iron;
  • nicotine destroys vitamins A, C, P, and selenium;
  • caffeine destroys the vitamins of group B, PP, and also reduces the content of iron, potassium, zinc, calcium in the body;
  • Aspirin reduces the content of B, C, A vitamins, as well as calcium and potassium;
  • hypnotics make it difficult to absorb vitamins A, D, E, B12, and also significantly reduce calcium levels;
  • antibiotics destroy B vitamins, as well as iron, calcium, magnesium;
  • diuretics remove B vitamins from the body, as well as magnesium, zinc, and potassium;
  • Laxatives interfere with the absorption of vitamins A, D, E.

Everyone has a role

Vitamins perform many functions in the body. Here are the most important ones.

Vitamin Functions
A Improves vision, stimulates the immune system, promotes healing and renewal of the skin, protects the liver
B1 Regulates carbohydrate metabolism and water balance, reduces the need for insulin and enhances its action, prevents the development of atherosclerosis
B2 Affects metabolism, stimulates the growth of the body and tissue healing, supports normal vision
B6 Regulates the activity of the nervous system, participates in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and fats, enhances the contraction of the heart muscle
B12 Good effect on the liver and nervous system is involved in the synthesis of hemoglobin
C Participates in carbohydrate metabolism, collagen synthesis, increases resistance to infections, increases blood coagulation
D Regulates phosphorus-calcium metabolism promotes mineralization and bone strengthening
E It has an antioxidant effect, participates in the synthesis of proteins, and is an immunomodulator
F Improves healing of the skin and mucous membranes, prevents the development of atherosclerosis, inhibits the aging
PP Participates in carbohydrate and protein metabolism favorably affects the heart muscle, dilates blood vessels, improves liver function

What to Сook with Avocado

The popularization of a healthy lifestyle, competent marketing, and a low yield all contributed to the fact that over the past year avocado prices in the world have increased by an average of 30%. In Mexico, cartels are embarking on a new business, while in China this year, their first own berry harvest is expected (yes, avocados are berries). In general, avocados are expensive today, and you can’t eat a lot of them after all, 250 calories in one piece. Therefore, we decided to figure out what can be done with one avocado.

How to choose an avocado

The most popular avocado varieties in the world are Hass and Fuerte. Hass with dense, pimply skin, as the fruits ripen, the fruits become almost black. Fuerte, by contrast, are thin-skinned and remain bright green. The easiest way to determine the readiness of an avocado is to tear off the stalk and see what color the flesh is underneath. Yellow the avocado still lies a couple of days, brown the avocado is ripe, bright green is what you need. If you want the avocado to ripen faster, put it in a brown paper bag with a banana. Bananas emit ethylene gas, which accelerates the ripening process.

I have one perfect avocado, how to cook it?

The simplest recipe is to cut the avocado in half, remove the stone, sprinkle with lime or lemon juice, salt (preferably with coarse salt) and sprinkle with freshly ground black pepper. By the way, always try to use freshly ground pepper, it has a completely different flavor. There is such an avocado with a spoon, just digging out of the boat-peel. But there are other ways both very simple and more complicated, at least for breakfast, at least for dinner.

Toast with avocado, feta cheese, and mint

The most suitable bread for this dish is sourdough wheat, with a crispy crust and a slightly sour taste. In general, toast with avocado is the perfect breakfast in five minutes. The only task here is to get the ingredients in advance.

Ingredients (in two servings):

  • one avocado, one tablespoon of freshly squeezed lime juice;
  • one tablespoon of finely chopped fresh mint;
  • a quarter of a teaspoon of fine salt;
  • a quarter of a teaspoon of freshly ground black pepper;
  • 50 grams feta cheese;
  • four slices of bread.


Knead the avocado with a fork to a state of roughly mashed potatoes, add lime juice, mint.

There you can chop feta, salt, and pepper to taste.

Toast bread in a toaster, oven (in this case, first preheat the oven to 180 degrees) or in a skillet. The main thing is that the bread is hot.

Put the avocado mixture on toasts.

Avocado and Cucumber Gazpacho

Summer, of course, is over, but you should not give in to stereotypes cold soups are good at any time when you want freshness. And this recipe can also be used for avocado smoothies: just add banana, coconut water and exclude salt and pepper.

Ingredients (in two servings):

For gazpacho:

  • two large cucumbers (peel and remove the seeds);
  • one avocado, take out a stone, peel;
  • wash one small bunch of cilantro and peel into leaves;
  • wash one small bunch of peppermint and peel into leaves;
  • three tablespoons of freshly squeezed lime juice;
  • half a teaspoon of sea salt;
  • a quarter teaspoon of freshly ground black pepper.

For cucumber salsa:

  • half a glass of finely chopped cucumbers, half a glass of cilantro leaves;
  • one tablespoon of tart olive oil;
  • one tablespoon of freshly squeezed lime juice;
  • sea salt and freshly ground pepper to taste.


Beat all the ingredients in a blender. You can add a little water to get the texture you need.

Combine all salsa ingredients in a small bowl.

Pour the soup into plates and garnish with salsa.

Grilled avocado and peach salad with spelled

Well, a very healthy salad, which can be either a separate dish or a side dish, for example, to baked fish or chicken. Spelled gives the salad structure, avocado and peach taste and aroma, and watercress pungency. And you will need a special grill pan.

Ingredients (in two servings, if this is a separate dish, or four, if a side dish):

  • one avocado;
  • two peaches;
  • one small bunch of cilantro;
  • one bunch of watercress;
  • half a glass of spelled;
  • one tablespoon of sugar;
  • one clove of garlic, crush into a paste;
  • a quarter cup of olive oil;
  • two tablespoons of freshly squeezed lemon juice;
  • one eighth of a teaspoon of ground Zira;
  • one teaspoon of salt;
  • a quarter teaspoon of freshly ground pepper.


Wash watercress and cilantro. Dry, disassemble on leaves.

Boil spelled in salted water until al dente. Fold into a sieve, rinse with cold water.

While spelled is boiling, prepare salad dressing immediately in the salad bowl (this will help not to stain excess dishes). Dissolve salt in lemon juice, add garlic, Zira, pepper, and oil and beat with a fork.

Cut the avocado along, take out the stone and peel it. Cut the peach along, take out the stone. Sprinkle with lemon juice and olive oil, sprinkle with salt and pepper. Preheat the grill, put the peaches and avocados with the slice down and cook for about five minutes. Remove from the grill, cool slightly, cut into large cubes.

Put all the ingredients in a salad bowl, mix.

Chicken tacos

Chicken tacos are always good. Especially for dinner, especially while watching your next favorite series. Do not be afraid of the number of ingredients, the cooking time is 25 minutes.

Ingredients (in four servings):

  • 500 grams of minced chicken;
  • one small onion, chopped finely;
  • one clove of garlic, crush with a knife;
  • salt and freshly ground pepper to taste;
  • one and a half teaspoons ground Zira;
  • one and a half teaspoons of ground chili;
  • one teaspoon of dry oregano;
  • one teaspoon of smoked Spanish paprika;
  • 100 milliliters of coconut milk;
  • one tablespoon of sugar;
  • two tablespoons of freshly squeezed lime juice;
  • one can of canned red beans;
  • four wheat or corn tortilla cakes;
  • one avocado.


Fold beans on a sieve, rinse with cold water. Allow water to drain. Cut the avocado along, take out the stone, peel off the skin. Cut into thin slices, sprinkle with lime juice.

Heat 1 tablespoon of olive oil in a large skillet. Fry onions, garlic over medium heat until transparent, about five minutes. Add cumin, chili, paprika, oregano, salt, and pepper, let the spices open and become more aromatic.

Increase heat, add minced meat, fry, stirring constantly. Add coconut milk and cook for about five minutes or until coconut milk begins to thicken. Add sugar, beans and lime juice. Season with salt and pepper to taste.

Divide between four pre-warmed tortillas. Put slices of avocado on top.

Table Setting Theory and Practice in 6 Steps

A proper serving is always a sign of attention to guests, a way to create a festive atmosphere, as well as an indicator of the artistic taste of the hostess.

  • In this material we will consider the rules of informal serving, that is, those that are appropriate for receiving guests at home in everyday life and on holidays.
  • Serving at home depends on the occasion, time of day, theme and menu, but in all cases, the purpose of serving is the same to arrange the dishes and appliances so that it is convenient and pleasant to eat.

Based on this goal, table setting rules were invented. In everyday life, you must observe all these canons only in the most solemn occasions, but once you have learned their essence, you can set the table yourself for any occasion from a romantic dinner to a family New Year’s celebration.

Before you begin, take a look at two sample table layout schemes. As you can see, it is much easier to set up a home holiday table for guests than at an official reception!

So how to set the table? We made a step-by-step instruction in a certain sequence, describing each of the steps. In short, the most convenient procedure is as follows:

  • Tablecloth;
  • Plates;
  • Cutlery;
  • Glasses;
  • Napkins;
  • Decor (a vase of flowers, candles, themed decorations).

Keep in mind that a few days before the event you need to solve all organizational issues and prepare:

  • Decide on the number of persons, draw up a menu, tidy up the tablecloth, check the quantity and quality of napkins, dishes, appliances, think over the decor.

On the day of the reception, wipe all dishes and utensils clean, and then proceed to set the table.

1. First, we make a tablecloth

The main thing here is to make sure that the overhang of the tablecloth is no more and no less than 20-30 cm. The overhang will look uglier shorter and longer inconvenient for those sitting at the table.

As for the color, you can choose either a win-win and traditional white tablecloth, or lay any option you like, supplement it with paths and sidekicks.

2. Plates layout

This part of the “serving” theory will be the most extensive. After all, the composition and combination of plates depending on the planned menu, the number of guests and the scale of the holiday.
According to the classic table setting rules, several plates can rely on one person:

  • Substitution large plate (serving) for the day and everyday table it is not required, also some serving styles (for example, rustic) allow its absence.

May also be needed: medium (snack), small (pie or dessert) and a deep plate for soup.

  • According to the canon, the appearance of the deep plate depends on the type of soup. For thick choose a wide, for a light broth or cream soup a bowl with or without handles. But this is just that rule, which can be completely neglected.

As for the arrangement of plates, snack or deep plates are placed on the substitution plates, dessert and or salad plates are placed on the left as shown in the picture on the right. This place may also contain a tea pair, a pie plate or, for example, a bowl for eggs on the occasion of Easter.

  • Plates should be placed at a distance of 1.5-2 cm from the edge of the table and at the same distance from each other;
  • So that the snack plate does not slip on the counter, between them you need to put a paper or textile napkin as shown in the photo below.

3. Put the cutlery

Now proceed to the layout of the devices. They are placed on the sides according to the number of changes in dishes (with the concave side to the table):

  • To the right of the plates are knives and spoons;
  • On the left are forks;
  • You can put a teaspoon on top.

Festive table setting at home does not require a large number of special knives, forks, and spoons. Most often, one knife, one fork and a couple of spoons (for soup and dessert) are enough.

But if necessary and desired, you can additionally serve the table with special forks, knives, and spoons as shown in the following photo selection.

4. Put glasses, wine glasses, glasses

Next, put the glasses from larger to smaller behind the plates a little to the right.

Depending on the available drinks and preferences of the guests, glasses for water, red/white wine, champagne and/or a glass for juice, strong drinks and a glass are displayed.

5. Serve the napkins

For especially special occasions, napkins can be folded beautifully and artistically on a plate. For all other cases, there are no strict rules for serving napkins. They can be put in a glass for water, put under a snack plate, put into rings, tie with a ribbon and decorate.

If you are setting the table, not for the holiday, but, for example, for dinner, then you can put napkins on the side of the plate under the forks.

6. The finishing touch table decor

Hooray, almost done! It remains only to decorate the festive table with flowers in a vase and thematic decorations. On New Year’s day, it can be cones, rosemary and fir branches, on March 8 flower buds, and on Easter hares and pussy-willow branches. The topic of table decor should be paid more attention in a separate article, but for now, we offer a look at the photos of beautifully decorated tables in different themes and styles.

Men’s bow ties: how to wear, what to combine with

In the old days, it was hard to imagine that someone would leave the house without a hat or jacket. An unbuttoned shirt collar is an unthinkable thing: there must have been a neck accessory a tie, bow tie, or neck scarf. And these times are not so long ago. But everything has changed. Nowadays, men feel at ease: if you want, wear a tie, if you want, don’t wear it: no one will say a word to you (only if you don’t work at the bank, there is a dress code). And of course, since such freedom, most ties do not wear. And in vain: a tie or bow tie can radically transform your image for the better. The main source of love for modern men to unbuttoned top shirt button is the inability to choose the right accessories, skillfully combine, beautifully tie and elegantly wear. A closed gate, decorated with a stylish, perfectly matched, slightly carelessly tied a tie (or bow-tie) makes the image neat, but not boring; energetic, but without vulgar sportiness; refined, but not sugary in general, such as what a man with good taste should strive for.

Image of a man in a bow tie

Back in 1964, Hardy Amis, a well-known fashion designer, a connoisseur of style, wrote: “Despite the fact that nowadays men everywhere wear ordinary knitted ties and a butterfly is perceived as a somewhat eccentric sophistication, it has not gone out of use.” Please note the statement of more than fifty years ago but nothing has changed: not all of them still wear bow ties, but there is no tendency to the complete disappearance of this accessory. Any manufacturer of ties in most cases also consistently includes in their assortment a certain number of butterfly patterns, for which there is always a buyer for them. What impression can a person make in a butterfly? There is an opinion (John T. Molloy voiced it in his book “Clothes for Success” in 1975) that no one will ever trust an important business to a person in a butterfly. Knowing that Winston Churchill used a bow tie in his daily business suit, we assume that the statement was rash. Many reputable people used this accessory as the main one. With all this, it is necessary to be aware that in our time the emphasis has shifted somewhat. A modern businessman, banker or lawyer will be skeptical about a butterfly. However, people of creative or intellectual fields of activity will not only have this accessory by the way but in some situations, you simply can’t imagine anything better than it. A bow tie is great if you want to add a bit of irony to the image, a fan of what is called. However, it is worth being careful not to go too far. A few additional flashy details in clothes can shift the focus from the image of a stylish professor to the image of a clown. Be restrained and modest in English: the butterfly itself is already a bright element (regardless of color), therefore, creating an environment for it in the form of a jacket, shirt, and trousers, try to be prudent.

Do not make these mistakes

The topic of clownery and inept eccentricity should be disclosed, giving examples of those mistakes that, in our opinion, should be avoided with taste. Observe proportions. The size of the bow tie in length and width should be adequate to the size of your face. Too large a butterfly looks ridiculous.

Do not wear a bow-tie with a jacket without a jacket, vest or sweater.

Avoid pre-tied butterflies. This design differs from self-bindings in that the knot is still tied in production and fixed so that it is not possible to untie and tie such a butterfly again: I bought it and wear it, you will not need special skills. Their shape is too neat and symmetrical, it looks cheap, unnatural and childish.

Moreover, butterflies made of wood, leather, rubber, etc. are outside the style. They are on sale in a large number of variations. It’s rather difficult for us to imagine the person who buys and wears them (except for gifts).

Finally, don’t wear it if you don’t want to be recognized as a beginner in dressing skills, a bow tie, and a single-breasted pocket square. Such combinations look deliberately and without fiction.

How to combine

Shirt with bow tie:

For wearing with a bow tie, we recommend choosing a shirt whose collar edges are pulled apart at a moderately obtuse (cutaway) or right angle (kent). But it should be just a moderate cutaway, not extreme since extreme (it is also called a “shark”) has too wide edges and can look unbalanced with a butterfly.

For narrow collars, such as in the photo below, it is better to choose a narrower and smaller butterfly.

A button-down collar is also suitable for wearing with this accessory. This combination is very characteristic of the preppy style.

Separately, it is worth mentioning a special collar (wing collar), which can only be combined with butterflies, and only with official ones silk black or white.

As was said, a bow tie should be worn not just with a shirt, but complete with an additional top layer in the form of a vest, jacket, sweater, cardigan. In such an environment, the butterfly looks organically, not too accentuated, and also does not cause unnecessary associations with the waiters. In other words, harmony is achieved if a small section of the shirt, pulled together by a beautifully tied butterfly, remains in sight. Moreover, even a two-button jacket can look problematic, because a butterfly, unlike a usual long tie, leaves too much open space and does not close the bar with a vertical row of buttons.

A vest (possibly knitted), a three-button or double-breasted jacket, sweater or cardigan will come to the rescue.

How to Choose Clothing Accessories

Accessories are an easy and convenient way to change your image. In turn, correctly selected accessories can work wonders they will make your dress with new colors from a dress from last year’s collection, hide flaws and emphasize advantages, and, finally, emphasize your status.

With all the variety of all kinds of jewelry, bags, and gloves, many girls are afraid to make their choice in favor of a bright and unusual accessory. We urge you to get rid of fear and offer to learn how to choose accessories for any clothes, for all occasions!

Before buying your favorite handbag or bracelet, think about what you will combine it with. The more expensive and original the jewelry or another accessory, the easier the outfit should be. Remember, accessories should fill the “voids” of your image, thereby linking the entire kit into a single whole.

Choose clothing accessories based on the time of year. In winter, large jewelry and large bags will look better in order to look better on a textured “background”. In the summer, let it be accessories made of natural materials: wood, ornamental stones like turquoise, amber, as well as corals. Organically fit into the image and accessories made of plastic.

In general, when choosing accessories, use the four basic rules. They will easily help you choose a bag or scarf to your beloved along.

1. Pay attention to the color

When choosing accessories for clothes, it is important to remember the color harmony.

To make the color combination perfect, many stylists resort to one trick. They determine the main, dominant color of clothing (if the outfit is multi-colored) with side vision. Then they determine in which colors the outfit is made warm or cold.

And finally, they turn to the well-known color spectral circle. In it, you need to choose the opposite color, as well as the color triad (these colors should, as it were, form the corners of an isosceles triangle) or two or three colors located next to each other in the spectrum so you will play with shades of the same color.

Bright neon shades combine very well with each other. A great example of street style a young girl picked up neon-yellow jewelry for bright jeans but balanced the flashy combination with a jacket and white top, as well as a bag and shoes in soothing beige tones. A noticeable watch matches the color of the clutch buckle.

2. Choose accessories of the necessary form

Otherwise, they will be knocked out of the general image.

To do this, pay attention to the cut of clothes this is the third rule.

If strict geometric lines prevail in the whole image, then it makes sense to choose jewelry and a bag with clear angles and edges. And, on the contrary, to create a soft and flying look you will need accessories rounded in shape.

3. Cutout shape

For a V-shaped neckline, jewelry that is identical in shape is suitable. For example, a pendant on a long chain that repeats the shape of the neckline, or a necklace of a triangular shape.

The O-shaped neckline suggests the wearing of massive jewelry, without small details (solid), as well as relatively long.

And finally, with strapless clothing, choosing the right accessories is easy. But here there are a few tricks. Pay attention to the cut line of the bust. If it is straight, then choose O-shaped jewelry (like Kim Kardashian), if V-shaped, then chooses jewelry in the shape of a triangle.

If your outfit is sleeveless, do not give up bracelets on your hand. Please note that there should be no accents along the hip line (since the emphasis will be in the form of a bracelet with the arm lowered), only if the bracelets do not emphasize the features of the outfit (such as a bracelet with stones in the form of a snake emphasizes the finish on the pockets of the dress from Matthew Williamson).

No neck accessories required for outfits:

  • with an emphasis on the area around the neck (embroidery, stones, shuttlecocks, etc.);
  • with emphasis on the shoulders;
  • with asymmetric neckline;
  • boat neckline;
  • with an American armhole;
  • outfits made of sequins or shiny fabric. We complement these outfits with simple accessories.

4. Unified style

But, perhaps, the main thing in the image is a set designed in one style. This also applies to accessories in particular. For example, a formal suit in a classic style will not tolerate neighborhood with bright jewelry or “evening” diamonds.

To create a business image, it is enough to “complete” the kit with simple but expensive watches, a neat no-frill ring or small, laconic-shaped earrings. In addition, a fabric bag is not allowed. Choose classic models of leather bags in neutral tones black, gray, beige and others.

And for a party or a date, you can wear beautiful shiny earrings or several metal bracelets of different widths to the playful dress, of course, adding a stylish and bright clutch.